Can the Chinese Be Innovative?

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Sertorio
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Can the Chinese Be Innovative?

Post by Sertorio » Thu Jan 14, 2021 10:39 am

Once in a while some of our forum members come and tell us that China will fail because the Chinese are not innovative, mostly as a result of being ruled by the CCP. But is it true?...
China unveils maglev train prototype with designed speed of 620 km/h
CGTN
https://news.cgtn.com/news/2021-01-14/C ... index.html

China rolled out a maglev train prototype with a designed speed of 620 km/h on Wednesday, which is the world's first vehicle using the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev technology, according to its developers.

The domestically developed prototype and a 165-meter maglev test track were unveiled by researchers at Southwest Jiaotong University in Chengdu, Sichuan Province.

At the launch ceremony, the 21-meter-long silver-and-black locomotive was seen floating slowly along the track. Experts hailed it as a "zero to one" breakthrough in the country's development of HTS technology.

"Although the theory sounds good, everyone saw it (HTS maglev technology) as a lab toy in the past, without tests in a real situation," said Deng Zigang, deputy director of the university's research center for super-high-speed maglev transport in low-pressure tubes.

China has been a world leader in the construction of high-speed railway. By the end of 2020, the country had 37,900 km of high-speed rail lines in service, the longest in the world, according to China's railway operator.

Maglev trains, levitated from the tracks and propelled by powerful magnets to avoid wheel-rail friction, are designed to break the speed bottlenecks facing high-speed trains.

The country's first commercial maglev system was put into operation in 2003 in Shanghai. The 30-km stretch between downtown and the city's Pudong airport is based on German maglev technology of electromagnetic suspension (EMS).

China's first medium-and-low speed maglev line fully supported by the country's own EMS technology started operations in May 2016 in Changsha, Hunan Province. It has a design speed of 100 km/h.

With an investment of 60 million yuan ($9.3 million), the HTS maglev project was jointly developed by Southwest Jiaotong University, China Railway Group Limited and CRRC Corporation Limited.

Compared with other maglev technologies, HTS tech is more suitable for the futuristic concept of super-fast transportation in vacuum tubes, where trains could hit speeds of over 1,000 km/h, according to Deng.

"The HTS technology can make the train float without electricity, and it can be moved with just one hand," said Deng.

At the site, a reporter succeeded in moving the 12-tonne levitated locomotive with one finger.

Wu Zili, a senior engineer with the Southwest Jiaotong University, said the cost of the (HTS) maglev system is estimated to be slightly higher than the high-speed rail, but the cost is expected to go down further if mass production of main components is achieved.
But if you think that trains are not interesting enough, what about quantum computing?
The quantum leap forward
By Brian McGleenon
https://www.rt.com/op-ed/512443-quantum ... t-network/

Beijing’s new quantum computer can solve mathematical problems in 200 seconds that it would take current supercomputers millions of years to solve – and the network around it will revolutionise how we live and work.

China achieved “quantum supremacy” with the development of its Jiuzhang quantum computer, which last month surpassed Google’s Sycamore quantum device with its ability to calculate 100 trillion times faster than the fastest classical supercomputer.

The development sent shock waves around the world. But before this news could be fully digested by rival players in the quantum race, Beijing announced it had also built the world’s first fully integrated quantum network. Earlier this month, a network of satellite relays and fiber optic cables between Shanghai and Beijing was able to “teleport” huge amounts of data.

Chinese firms raised almost $12 billion through IPOs on US this year

The world is now witnessing the birth of a Chinese quantum internet that will revolutionize society by allowing unhackable transfers of data and optimizing machine learning for the ‘internet of things’, and possibly leading to instantaneous communication when developed further. Quantum computing allows the evaluating of multiple possibilities at once and the performing of complex calculations not possible on normal computers. “Quantum computers aren’t just about doing things faster or more efficiently,” a Wired article explained last year. “They’ll let us do things that we couldn’t even have dreamed of without them. Things that even the best supercomputer just isn’t capable of.”

As the writer described it: “If you ask a normal computer to figure its way out of a maze, it will try every single branch in turn, ruling them all out individually until it finds the right one. A quantum computer can go down every path of the maze at once. It can hold uncertainty in its head.”

The Chinese scientists teleported quantum information 1,400km (870 miles) to two satellites then back to earth via receiver stations – a first step in creating a global-scale quantum internet. Together with the development of Jiuzhang, the recent developments have pushed the country to the forefront in the race to win the ‘quantum age’ – a development that will unnerve Washington and Silicon Valley.

According to Professor Lo Hoi-kwong, of the University of Hong Kong, China is now playing the leading role in the application of quantum communications. He predicted that the technology would have advanced applications for the Chinese military, its finance sector, and for the country’s overall communications.

One of the key architects of Jiuzhang, Professor Chao-Yang Lu, of the University of Science and Technology of China, told RT.com that the computer gained “quantum advantage” over the most advanced classic supercomputer through the use of photons of light to solve calculations, instead of the classical use of electrical binary signals in microprocessors.

He claimed the revolutionary design would allow computations that would take conventional supercomputers hundreds of millions of years to solve to be executed in seconds. Speaking to RT.com from his office in Beijing, Professor Lu said the applications of the new technology would transform “the field of quantum chemistry and optimization, which can be helpful in designing new materials and machine learning”.

He explained how Jiuzhang could be deployed in China’s quantum internet development, “because it can be used as a node,” able to program and store information being communicated through the quantum network. The professor added that the Chinese device had an advantage over its competitors, such as Sycamore,as “it uses photons that are naturally compatible with the internet because obviously flying photons are the fastest and only sensible way to transfer information over long distances”. He added that “quantum computation and quantum communication using photons share a lot of techniques in common”. Sycamore relies on super-cold, superconducting metal, whereas the Chinese alternative can operate at room temperature.

One promising application for quantum computers is their ability to solve machine-learning optimization problems and quickly read huge data sets. This speeding up of machine-learning algorithms will allow much more advanced autonomous devices. The development of the internet of things will see vast scales of data gathered every second by devices, sensors and machines. Quantum computers would be ideal information-processing systems.

Professor Lu emphasized that the phrase “quantum supremacy” was not about political domination, but based on such devices outperforming classical supercomputers. He stressed: “Building quantum computer machines is a race between nature and humans, not between countries... The whole international community should closely collaborate. We should encourage more open scientific exchange in both knowledge and people.”

Since 2016, China's president Xi Jinping has been aggressively pushing the advancement of the nation’s research into quantum technology. The move is a key part of his blueprint to make China technologically self-reliant and a global leader in scientific research and development. He has set the nation a goal of achieving dominance in the area of quantum computing by 2030.

Billions of dollars have been poured into the quest, and a new institute created: the Chinese National Laboratory for Quantum Information Sciences. The institute was behind the creation of the integrated quantum network, consisting of two satellites and thousands of kilometers of optical fiber cables linking key government facilities, power grids, military posts, and banks between Beijing and Shanghai. The whole system is claimed to be immune from disruptive cyber-attacks.

According to the Global Times, president Xi announced at a CCP group study session in October 2020 that he wanted to strengthen “top-level design” in the field of quantum science and encouraged the acceleration of “breakthroughs in basic research”. Referring to the nation’s dedication to becoming dominant in the field, the state-run tabloid also reported that “China had nearly twice as many patent filings as the US for quantum technology overall in 2018”.

The US has responded testily to China's ambitions in quantum computing, particularly fearing its military applications. In 2018, President Donald Trump placed his signature to the National Quantum Initiative Act, which pledged $1.2 billion for research in the field over five years. In the same year, the US military implicitly referred to China’s quantum advancements as a national security threat in a statement titled ‘Technologies for Threat Military Applications’. It read: “A global race has ensued to exploit and operationalize quantum technologies for the use of military effects. The race to conquer the quantum domain is among the most fiercely competitive in today’s world of technology.”

Quantum computing can utilize two fundamental properties of quantum mechanics: superposition and entanglement. Superposition means the information held in ‘qubits’ can exist in two different states simultaneously. This could allow vast amounts of information to be stored in sections of code.

The infinite variables allow the quantum computer vast amounts of processing power, because each qubit can perform multiple calculations at once. Superposition also greatly increases the speed by which a quantum computer can solve certain problems that would take classical computers millions of years. For instance, the computational advantage of China’s quantum computer can solve mathematical problems in seconds that the world’s fastest conventional computer, Japan’s Fugaku, would take an estimated 600 million years to solve.

Entanglement is another advantage of the quantum and is one of the strangest phenomena of quantum mechanics. Einstein called entanglement “spooky action at a distance”, in which subatomic particles that are nearby each other influence each other in some way, such as the direction they spin in. However, the strange effects of entanglement mean that when these two particles are separated, no matter at how vast a distance, if one is changed, the other goes through the same changes at exactly the same time, meaning these two particles are intimately and forever connected. The principle of entanglement could be used by quantum devices for the exponentially faster communication of information.
The truth is that China, with 1.3 billion people and more PhD's than the US, is investing a lot more money in pure science and its applications than any other country in the world, and will therefore pull ahead of its competitors. Nothing to be surprised about.

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Milo
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Re: Can the Chinese Be Innovative?

Post by Milo » Thu Jan 14, 2021 10:46 am

One Potemkin train does not prove anything, except communism's love of facade.

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Sertorio
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Re: Can the Chinese Be Innovative?

Post by Sertorio » Thu Jan 14, 2021 11:02 am

Milo wrote:
Thu Jan 14, 2021 10:46 am
One Potemkin train does not prove anything, except communism's love of facade.
Potemkine? No! Sour grapes!...

Image

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cassowary
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Re: Can the Chinese Be Innovative?

Post by cassowary » Fri Jan 15, 2021 2:07 am

Sertorio is right. China has a larger population than the US. So it will produce more scientist and Engineers than the US. And now it has money to spend on research.

But the US can tap on Indian, European, Chinese and other countries’ Engineers and scientists by keeping the door open to talent.

NVIDIA and Advanced Micro Devices are headed by Chinese. Microsoft and Google are headed by Indians.

It is not so clear cut that China will win the technology race. But I think they probably will. Their advantage is that they will steal technology because America is an open society. China is not.

They have enticed Elon Musk to set up a factory in China. That’s the recipe for getting his technology by hook or by crook.
The Imp :D

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Sertorio
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Re: Can the Chinese Be Innovative?

Post by Sertorio » Fri Jan 22, 2021 3:33 am

Why China's maglev trains can revolutionize transportation and society
by Keith Lamb
https://news.cgtn.com/news/2021-01-16/W ... index.html

Editor's note: Keith Lamb is a University of Oxford graduate with an MSC degree in Contemporary Chinese Studies. His primary research interests are China's international relations and "Socialism with Chinese Characteristics."

In the Anglosphere, we've barely come out of the steam age when it comes to rail travel. In the U.S. barely any rail exists and while rail is ubiquitous in the UK, Britons are still waiting for the building of High-Speed 2 to get underway. This is more the pity when one thinks back to the years when both countries were at the cutting edge with rail infrastructure.

China, in contrast, already has over 30,000km of high-speed rail track that challenges the polluting air industry when it comes to shorter distance journeys. Not satisfied with bringing convenience only to travelers, in December 2020 high-speed freight trains that reach speeds of 350 km/h were rolled off the assembly line in Tangshan.

If you've travelled on China's high-speed rail you'll know how comfortable and convenient it can be. Journeys that used to take the entire day are now doable within a few hours. The trains are spacious and the ride is smooth. Take a cup out and fill it up with the beverage of your choice you'll find there's no need for a cap to stop spillage.

However, as great as high-speed rail is there are a number of problems. While high-speed rail is far more environmentally friendly than air travel, trains nevertheless have wheels that rub against tracks leading to mechanical wear and a wastage of energy. Then, while high-speed trains are much faster than nearly all other forms of transport they're simply not fast enough to challenge the air industry, in any serious manner, over longer distances.

These problems though, at least in China, are being challenged with the advent of maglev transportation technology. Maglev is a shortened form of magnetic levitation. Maglev "trains" while looking like traditional highspeed railway in fact levitate above the track rather than having wheels.

On January 13, in Chengdu, China rolled out its maglev train prototype which is designed to travel at a speed of 620km/h. Using homegrown high-temperature superconducting (HTS) technology the consortium of Chinese developers believes that with the addition of vacuum tubes these maglev trains could reach speeds of over 1,000km/h.

The speed that these maglevs will go will allow them to challenge the air industry not just on shorter flights but also mid-distance flights too. I remember, in 2005, taking a grueling overnight train journey from Beijing to Shanghai sitting in a hard seat for about 20 hours. Today, this journey takes 4 hours 18 minutes on China's high-speed rail. However, a maglev line could cut what is a journey of just over 1,200 km into a long commute of just under 2 hours.

This would make polluting air travel for this journey needless. To its advantage, maglev, like rail travel, would be able to transport passengers closer to city centers. Unlike air transport, but just like traditional rail, maglev transportation would also provide an economic boon to all the towns and cities that have stations between the start and end stations.

As already mentioned, maglev doesn't have the friction that rail travel does. As such, maglev transport is less wasteful and more environmentally friendly. With the launch of China's HTS maglev prototype, a reporter was able to move the 12-tonne levitated train using merely one finger.

In addition, by eliminating friction maglev trains also significantly reduce costs. James Powel the director of the company Maglev 2000 believes that on high-speed rail every passenger pays one dollar for each mile (about 1.6km) travelled while for maglev costs could be as little as five cents per mile.

When it comes to China's growth, maglev transportation works within the broader aims of China's overall development plans. By bringing greater convenience to China's citizens it will allow individuals to have more surplus time to be productive and innovative.

No doubt, maglev transportation, just like high-speed rail, will spur on domestic tourism. High-speed rail, as I have personally witnessed, has provided an outlet for consumers to take a quick day or weekend break to places previously too far for them to consider going by car or slow-rail.

The very fact that China is pushing on innovative maglev technology will provide jobs in this technological field and also lead to other future innovations that arise from its foundations. Already, researchers see maglev technology as having the potential to be used in space launch systems and future wind power technology.

Consequently, maglev technology pushes on environmentally friendly transportation, it promotes innovation as a driving force for economic development, it provides distinct advantages to the people and it pushes on internal consumption. These factors, while all laudable in themselves, also work within the broader outlines of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025). As such, maglev transportation is not only involved in revolutionizing transport but society itself.
If you ask yourselves when will the US have a maglev train, the answer will probably be: not in the 21st century...

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cassowary
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Re: Can the Chinese Be Innovative?

Post by cassowary » Fri Jan 22, 2021 3:52 am

Of course, Chinese people are innovative. NVIDA is headed by Jensen Huang. Lisa Su heads AMD. That's why I am worried that China will overtake the US soon and the CCP will dominate the world. But you westerners kept on making the mistake of underestimating them.
The Imp :D

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Sertorio
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Re: Can the Chinese Be Innovative?

Post by Sertorio » Fri Jan 22, 2021 5:45 am

cassowary wrote:
Fri Jan 22, 2021 3:52 am
Of course, Chinese people are innovative. NVIDA is headed by Jensen Huang. Lisa Su heads AMD. That's why I am worried that China will overtake the US soon and the CCP will dominate the world. But you westerners kept on making the mistake of underestimating them.
I absolutely do not make that mistake, and I am a westerner...

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lzzrdgrrl
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Re: Can the Chinese Be Innovative?

Post by lzzrdgrrl » Sat Jan 23, 2021 10:43 am

This is getting rather contemptable that Americans are looking for self-confirming narratives in order to 'feel good while losing' as DPG told us in a recent essay, rather than to take personal responsibility in our predicament. We are actively assaulting our national purpose and identity, so who gives a damn what the Chinese are better or worse at........
I have a certain notoriety among the lesser gods........

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Sertorio
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Re: Can the Chinese Be Innovative?

Post by Sertorio » Sat Jan 23, 2021 11:32 am

lzzrdgrrl wrote:
Sat Jan 23, 2021 10:43 am
This is getting rather contemptable that Americans are looking for self-confirming narratives in order to 'feel good while losing' as DPG told us in a recent essay, rather than to take personal responsibility in our predicament. We are actively assaulting our national purpose and identity, so who gives a damn what the Chinese are better or worse at........
My advice is:

Let the 10% of Americans who are educated, intelligent, secular, entrepreneurial, innovative, decent, move to Europe, where they would be welcome, in order to help us creating a true alternative society, and let the other 90% sink in the cesspool they have been creating for the last century or so...

Jim the Moron
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Re: Can the Chinese Be Innovative?

Post by Jim the Moron » Sat Jan 23, 2021 12:16 pm

lzzrdgrrl wrote:
Sat Jan 23, 2021 10:43 am
This is getting rather contemptable that Americans are looking for self-confirming narratives in order to 'feel good while losing' as DPG told us in a recent essay, rather than to take personal responsibility in our predicament. We are actively assaulting our national purpose and identity, so who gives a damn what the Chinese are better or worse at........

From the Spengler link:

"America . . . needs to teach high school students Calculus in 10th grade and subsidize engineering students instead of resentment studies . . . And it needs a lot of qualified immigrants from China and India to build new industries while we wait for the long-term impact of education reforms."

And yes, there is a "Deep State" committed to perpetuation of mediocracy for personal gain over the present and future well-being of America.

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